Headache is a condition characterized by the presence of pain in the head and scalp area. The condition may be caused due to abnormalities in blood vessels, nerve fibers, and muscles. The condition may also be caused due to altered chemical activity in the brain. Various medications are prescribed for managing headache depending upon the underlying causes of headache.
- Acute sinusitis: Acute sinusitis interferes with the drainage system resulting in mucus build-up. For this reason, inflammation occurs around the eyes which cause a headache.
- Dehydration: Headache may also occur after excess sweating. In this condition, the brain shrinks or contract temporarily because of fluid loss and causesa headache.
- Ear infection: Ear infections irritate nerves which are located around the head. The irritation in nerves contributes to headache.
- Glaucoma: In acute glaucoma, the drainage system is closed and pressure inside the eye is rapidly increased. Increased pressure on the eye is a reason for the headache.
- Hypertension: Hypertension creates pressure in the brain result in leakage of blood which causes a headache.
- Stroke: Headache is the first symptom of stroke because it interrupts flowing of blood in the brain and important parts of the brain get devoid of blood.
- Meningitis: Due to meningitis, swelling occursin the surrounding area of the brain which typically causes pain in the head.
- Encephalitis: In this condition, inflammation occurs in brain tissues. The swelling of brain tissues causes a headache.
- Brain tumor: When the size of the tumor increases, it put pressure on the nerves of the brain which cause a headache.
- Brain Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM): Arteriovenous malformation results in bleeding. This may lead to a headache.
- Brain aneurysm: In this condition blood vessels of brain become weak and filled with blood and forms the balloon-like shape. This balloon-like shape presses the nerve which causes a headache.
- Stress: Due to stress, the secretion of neurotransmitters is increased which act as a messenger of the brain. In this condition, the blood vessels become constrict and dilate which causes a headache.
- Poor meals: If you are hungry and do not take proper meal then muscles of your neck and back become stiff which cause a tight band. The tight band cause a compressing sensation in and around of your head and cause a headache.
- Alcohol: If you consume too much alcohol then your blood vessels dilate which cause a headache.
- Food triggers: Some foods also trigger a headache. Avoid food triggers if you have migraines such as meat, cheese products, peanuts, smoked and dried fish, beans, and dried fruits. Foods contain many chemicals which can cause headaches such as nitrates, sulfites, aspartate, glutamate, and capsaicin.
Medications: A doctor will recommend you the medicines of headache based on types of headache such as,
- Migraine headache: In this type of headache doctors will prescribe you some drugs are called triptans. Drugs which include in this class are eletriptan, sumatriptan, naratriptan, zolmitriptan, and rizatriptan. These drugs are available in the form of pills, nasal spray, and shots.
- Tension headache: For the treatment of tension headache you can take some pain killers such as aspirin, acetaminophen, naproxen, and ibuprofen. Take a high dosage of these drugs to treat rebound headache. Do not take aspirin before 19 years of age because it can cause Rey’s syndrome in a child.
- Cluster headache: Some pain relief is also used to treat this type of headache. The high dose of pure oxygen through inhalation also used for cluster headache. You can also use a short course of triptans, verapamil, and steroids such as prednisone to treat this type of headache.
Alternative treatments: Some other therapy or treatments which can be used to treat headache;
- Acupuncture: According to a study, placing a small and thin needle in specific points of the body can help to reduce headache migraine and tension.
- Botulinum toxin: In this procedure Botox is injected in pain fibers which are responsible for headache. Botox is a neurotoxic protein which blocks the secretion of chemicals which cause a headache.
- Mind-body therapies: Mind-body therapies such as hypnosis, yoga, deep breathing, meditation, and visualization helps reducing headache. These therapies also help in reducing stress. These therapies are used especially in tension headache.
Home remedies: If you are suffering from a headache then you can use some home remedies such as;
- Take caffeine in the form of caffeinated beverages.
- Take some over-the-counter pain killers to treat headache
- Spend time in a dark and quiet place
- Apply ice packs on scalp, forehead, and neck