Cerebrovascular diseases are life-threatening conditions and require immediate medical interventions. Absence of emergency care may lead to fatal consequences. For a comprehensive evaluation of the symptoms, the patient should consult an experienced neurologist in Gurgaon.
What Is Cerebrovascular Disease?
Cerebrovascular disease is a condition, disease and disorder of blood vessels which are responsible for supplying blood to the brain. When the supply of oxygen in the brain is reducedbrain damage occurs. The lack of oxygen supply is causeddue to various reasons such as blockage, vascular malformation, and brain hemorrhage. The primary pathophysiological reason for cerebrovascular disease is atherosclerosis and damage to cerebral blood vessels. The most common cerebrovascular diseases are a stroke, aneurysm, vascular malformation, and transient ischemic attack.Â
What Are The Causes Of Cerebrovascular Disease?
Cerebrovascular disease occurs due to the following reasons:
- When any damage occurs in blood vessels, they are not able to supply sufficient blood to the brain tissues.
- When sufficient blood is not reached in the brain then the delivery of oxygen is also reduced. When brain cells do not take proper oxygen, cellular death may result.
- Atherosclerosis is a common and primary cause of cerebrovascular disease. This condition occurs when the cholesterol level is increased and causes inflammation in arteries and veins. When cholesterol level increases, it forms a thick and waxy plaque which blocks the flow of blood in the brain.
What Are The Major Types Of Cerebrovascular Disease?
Some of the major types of cerebrovascular disease are:
- Hemorrhagic stroke: Hemorrhagic stroke is also known as intracerebral hemorrhage. This condition occurs when a blood vessel is damaged and blood is accumulated in surrounding tissues.
- Ischemic stroke: It is the most common disease characterized by a blood clot that causes blockage in blood vessels of the brain.
- Cerebral aneurysm: In this condition, the blood vessels of the brain transforms into aballoon shape. In this condition, the blood vessels look like a berry hanging on a stem. A brain aneurysm can rupture and cause bleeding in the brain.
- Embolism: In this condition, a blockage is causedby the blood vessels. The blockage may be caused due to blood clots, air bubbles, gas accumulation or any foreign material.
- Vascular malformation: Vascular malformation is caused because of the abnormal growth of blood vessels. In most cases, it is genetic and causes pain and inflammation.
What Are The Symptoms Of Brain Aneurysms?
Common sign and symptoms of the ruptured aneurysm such as:
- Stiff neck
- Blurred and double vision
- Loss of consciousness
- Nausea and vomiting
- Sudden and extreme headache
- A drooping eyelid
What Are The Treatment Options For Brain Aneurysm?
Two options are available for the treatment of brain aneurysm:
- Endovascular coiling: It is a less invasive process. In this process, the surgeon inserts a thin tube in the groin artery. The surgeon moves the thin tube around the affected artery of the brain and places a coil. The coil placed in the artery is in the shape of spring.
- Surgical clipping: This procedure is performed to close the aneurysm. In this procedure, the surgeon will place a metal clip at the neck of the aneurysm to stop bleeding.
Other treatment for brain aneurysm:
- Pain relievers: Some pain relievers such as acetaminophen is used for the treatment of headache.
- Anti-seizure: Anti-seizure medication such as phenytoin, valproic acid, and levetiracetam is used for the treatment of seizure-related to a ruptured aneurysm.Â
- Shunt surgery:Â In this procedure,surgeons place a hollow tube to drain the cerebrovascular fluid and transport it to another part of the body where it is reabsorbed.
What Do You Mean By Vascular Malformation?
A vascular malformation is also known as vascular anomalies. The vascular malformation is causedby abnormal growth of blood vessels, veins, arteries, and lymph vessels. A vascular malformation is generally a genetic defect that is causedat the time of birth. Vascular malformation can cause pain, bleeding, and inflammation.
What Are The Treatment Options For Vascular Malformations?
- Sclerotherapy: This procedure is used for the treatment of lymphatic and venous malformation. In this procedure,the doctor inserts a chemical substance in the body through the skin. This substance reaches the affected site and forms a clot to stop bleeding.
- Laser treatment: This procedure is performed to treat superficial venous malformation. In this technique, the surgeon uses the laser to reduce bluish discoloration from the lining of lips, mouth, and skin.
- Embolization: It is a minimally invasive technique. In this procedure, the surgeon will close blood vessels with the help of glue and other substances.
In some cases,the doctor should need to perform radiosurgery. In this procedure,the surgeon will remove malformation with the help of radiation.Â